vim 最佳实践

原文链接: vim 最佳实践

vimtips.txt* For Vim version 8.0.

" new items marked [N] , corrected items marked [C]
" best-searching
/joe/e : cursor set to End of match
3/joe/e+1 : find 3rd joe cursor set to End of match plus 1 [C]
/joe/s-2 : cursor set to Start of match minus 2
/joe/+3 : find joe move cursor 3 lines down
/^joe.*fred.*bill/ : find joe AND fred AND Bill (Joe at start of line)
/1/ : search for lines beginning with one or more A-J
/begin_.*end : search over possible multiple lines
/fred_s*joe/ : any whitespace including newline [C]
/fred|joe : Search for FRED OR JOE
/.*fred&.joe : Search for FRED AND JOE in any ORDER!
/<fred>/ : search for fred but not alfred or frederick [C]
/<\d\d\d\d> : Search for exactly 4 digit numbers
/\D\d\d\d\d\D : Search for exactly 4 digit numbers
/<\d{4}> : same thing
% : Search for absence of a digit or beginning of line
" finding empty lines
/^\n{3} : find 3 empty lines
/^str.\nstr : find 2 successive lines starting with str
\n){2} : find 2 successive lines starting with str
" using rexexp memory in a search find fred.*joe.*joe.*fred C
" Repeating the Regexp (rather than what the Regexp finds)
" visual searching
:vmap // y/" : search for visually highlighted text
:vmap // y/=escape(@", '\/.$^~[]') : with spec chars
" \zs and \ze regex delimiters :h /\zs
\ze> : search for tag contents, ignoring chevrons
" zero-width :h /\@=
/<\@<=[^>]>\@= : search for tag contents, ignoring chevrons
>\@= : search for tags across possible multiple lines
" searching over multiple lines _ means including newline
/ : search for multiple line comments
/fred_s*joe/ : any whitespace including newline C
/bugs(_.)*bunny : bugs followed by bunny anywhere in file
:h _ : help
" search for declaration of subroutine/function under cursor
:nmap gx yiw/^(sub<bar>function)\s+"
" multiple file search
:bufdo /searchstr/ : use :rewind to recommence search
" multiple file search better but cheating
:bufdo %s/searchstr/&/gic : say n and then a to stop
" How to search for a URL without backslashing
? : (first) search BACKWARDS!!! clever huh!
" Specify what you are NOT searching for (vowels)
/\c\v([^aeiou]&\a){4} : search for 4 consecutive consonants
/\%>20l\%<30lgoat : Search for goat between lines 20 and 30 [N] /^.\{-}home.\{-}\zshome/e : match only the 2nd occurence in a line of "home" [N] :%s/home.\{-}\zshome/alone : Substitute only the 2nd occurrence of home in any line [U] " find str but not on lines containing tongue ^\(.*tongue.*\)\@!.*nose.*$ \v^((tongue)@!.)*nose((tongue)@!.)*$ .*nose.*\&^\%(\%(tongue\)\@!.\)*$ :v/tongue/s/nose/&/gic 'a,'bs/extrascost//gc : trick: restrict search to between markers (answer n) [N] /integ : Control-L to complete search term [N]
" best-substitution
:%s/fred/joe/igc : general substitute command
:%s//joe/igc : Substitute what you last searched for [N]
:%s/~/sue/igc : Substitute your last replacement string [N]
:%s/\r//g : Delete DOS returns ^M
" Is your Text File jumbled onto one line? use following
:%s/\r/\r/g : Turn DOS returns ^M into real returns
:%s= $== : delete end of line blanks
:%s= +$== : Same thing
\r\?$## : Clean both trailing spaces AND DOS returns
:%s#\s\r$## : same thing
" deleting empty lines
:%s/^\n{3}// : delete blocks of 3 empty lines
:%s/^\n+/\r/ : compressing empty lines
:%s#<[^>]+>##g : delete html tags, leave text (non-greedy)
:%s#<_.{-1,}>##g : delete html tags possibly multi-line (non-greedy)
:%s#.(\d+hours).#\1# : Delete all but memorised string (\1) [N]
" parse xml/soap
%s#><([^/])#>\r<\1#g : split jumbled up XML file into one tag per line [N]
%s/</\r&/g : simple split of html/xml/soap [N]
:%s#<[^/]#\r&#gic : simple split of html/xml/soap but not closing tag [N]
:%s#<[^/]#\r&#gi : parse on open xml tag [N]
:%s#[\d+]#\r&#g : parse on numbered array elements [1] [N]
ggVGgJ : rejoin XML without extra spaces (gJ) [N]
%s=\n#\d=\r&=g : parse PHP error stack [N]
:%s#^[^\t]+\t## : Delete up to and including first tab [N]
" VIM Power Substitute
:'a,'bg/fred/s/dick/joe/igc : VERY USEFUL
" duplicating columns
:%s= [^ ]+$=&&= : duplicate end column
:%s= \f+$=&&= : Dupicate filename
:%s= \S+$=&& : usually the same
" memory
:%s#example#& = &#gic : duplicate entire matched string [N]
:%s#.(tbl_\w+).#\1# : extract list of all strings tbl* from text [NC]
:s/(.):(.)/\2 : \1/ : reverse fields separated by :
:%s/^(.)\n\1$/\1/ : delete duplicate lines
)(\n\1)+$/\1/ : delete multiple duplicate lines [N]
" non-greedy matching {-}
:%s/^.{-}pdf/new.pdf/ : delete to 1st occurence of pdf only (non-greedy)
%s#^.{-}([0-9]{3,4}serial)#\1#gic : delete up to 123serial or 1234serial [N]
" use of optional atom \?
[a-z_]+>#\L&#gc : lowercase with optional leading characters
" over possibly many lines
:%s/// : delete possibly multi-line comments
:help /{-} : help non-greedy
" substitute using a register
:s/fred/a/g : sub "fred" with contents of register "a"
:s/fred/\=@a/g : better alternative as register not displayed (not ) [C]
/g : replace string with contents of paste register [N]
" multiple commands on one line
:%s/\f+.gif>/\r&\r/g | v/.gif$/d | %s/gif/jpg/
:%s/a/but/gie|:update|:next : then use @: to repeat
" ORing
:%s/goat|cow/sheep/gc : ORing (must break pipe)
:'a,'bs#[|]##g : remove [] from lines between markers a and b [N]
:%s/\v(.\n){5}/&\r : insert a blank line every 5 lines [N]
" Calling a VIM function
:s/date/\=strftime("%c")/ : insert datestring
:inoremap \zd =strftime("%d%b%y") : insert date eg 31Jan11 [N]
" Working with Columns sub any str1 in col3
" Swapping first & last column (4 columns)
" format a mysql query
:%s#<from>|<where>|<left join>|<\inner join>#\r&#g
" filter all form elements into paste register
:redir @|sil exec 'g#<(input|select|textarea|/\=form)>#p'|redir END
:nmap ,z :redir @
sil exec 'g@<(input<Bar>select<Bar>textarea<Bar>/\=form)>@p'redir END
" substitute string in column 30 [N]
" decrement numbers by 3
" increment numbers by 6 on certain lines only
" better
:h /\zs
" increment only numbers gg\d\d by 6 (another way)
:h zero-width
" rename a string with an incrementing number
:let i=10 | 'a,'bg/Abc/s/yy/\=i/ |let i=i+1 # convert yy to 10,11,12 etc
" as above but more precise
:let i=10 | 'a,'bg/Abc/s/xx\zsyy\ze/\=i/ |let i=i+1 # convert xxyy to xx11,xx12,xx13
" find replacement text, put in memory, then use \zs to simplify substitute
" Pull word under cursor into LHS of a substitute
:nmap z :%s#<=expand("")>#
" Pull Visually Highlighted text into LHS of a substitute
:vmap z :%s/<
" substitute singular or plural

:'a,'bs/bucket(s)*/bowl\1/gic [N]

" all following performing similar task, substitute within substitution
" Multiple single character substitution in a portion of line only
:%s,(all/.)\@<=/,_,g : replace all / with _ AFTER "all/"
" Same thing
#\=substitute(submatch(0), '/', '', 'g')#
" Substitute by splitting line, then re-joining
" Substitute inside substitute

:%s/.*/\='cp '.submatch(0).' all/'.substitute(submatch(0),'/','_','g')/

" best-global command
:g/gladiolli/# : display with line numbers (YOU WANT THIS!)
:g/fred.*joe.dick/ : display all lines fred,joe & dick
:g/<fred>/ : display all lines fred but not freddy
$/d : delete all blank lines
:g!/^dd/d : delete lines not containing string
:v/^dd/d : delete lines not containing string
:g/joe/,/fred/d : not line based (very powerfull)
:g/fred/,/joe/j : Join Lines [N]
:g/-------/.-10,.d : Delete string & 10 previous lines
:g/{/ ,/}/- s/\n+/\r/g : Delete empty lines but only between {...}
:v/\S/d : Delete empty lines (and blank lines ie whitespace)
:v/./,/./-j : compress empty lines
:g/^$/,/./-j : compress empty lines
:g/ as 5 characters)
:.,$g/^\d/exe "norm! <c-a>": increment numbers
:'a,'bg/\d+/norm! ^A : increment numbers
" storing glob results (note must use APPEND) you need to empty reg a first with qaq.
"save results to a register/paste buffer
:g/fred/y A : append all lines fred to register a
:g/fred/y A | :let @=@a : put into paste buffer
:g//y A | :let @
=@a : put last glob into paste buffer [N]
:let @a=''|g/Barratt/y A |:let @=@a
" filter lines to a file (file must already exist)
:'a,'bg/^Error/ . w >> errors.txt
" duplicate every line in a file wrap a print '' around each duplicate
/Print '&'/
" replace string with contents of a file, -d deletes the "mark"
:g/^MARK$/r tmp.txt | -d
" display prettily
:g//z#.5 : display with context
:g//z#.5|echo "==========" : display beautifully
" Combining g// with normal mode commands
:g/|/norm 2f|r* : replace 2nd | with a star
"send output of previous global command to a new window
:nmap :redir @a:g//:redir END:new:put! a
" Best-Global-combined-with-substitute (power-editing)
:'a,'bg/fred/s/joe/susan/gic : can use memory to extend matching
:/fred/,/joe/s/fred/joe/gic : non-line based (ultra)

:/biz/,/any/g/article/s/wheel/bucket/gic: non-line based [N]

" Find fred before beginning search f