数据库连接协议DSN 简介


原文链接: 数据库连接协议DSN 简介

Introduction - DSN – The Data Source Name

[username[:password]@][protocol[(address)]]/dbname[?param1=value1&...&paramN=valueN]

drone

DRONE_DATABASE_DATASOURCE: root:pa55word@tcp(1.2.3.4:3306)/drone?parseTime=true

  • DRONE_DATABASE_DRIVER: postgres
  • DRONE_DATABASE_DATASOURCE: postgres://root:pa55word@1.2.3.4:5432/postgres?sslmode=disable
    Description

To connect to a database through PEAR::DB, you have to create a valid DSN - data source name. This DSN consists in the following parts:

    phptype: Database backend used in PHP (i.e. mysql , odbc etc.)
    dbsyntax: Database used with regards to SQL syntax etc. When using ODBC as the phptype, set this to the DBMS type the ODBC driver is connecting to. Examples: access, db2, mssql, navision, solid, etc.
    protocol: Communication protocol to use ( i.e. tcp, unix etc.)
    hostspec: Host specification (hostname[:port])
    database: Database to use on the DBMS server
    username: User name for login
    password: Password for login
    proto_opts: Maybe used with protocol
    option: Additional connection options in URI query string format. options get separated by &

The format of the supplied DSN is in its fullest form:

phptype(dbsyntax)://username:password@protocol+hostspec/database?option=value

Most variations are allowed:

phptype://username:password@protocol+hostspec:110//usr/db_file.db
phptype://username:password@hostspec/database
phptype://username:password@hostspec
phptype://username@hostspec
phptype://hostspec/database
phptype://hostspec
phptype:///database
phptype:///database?option=value&anotheroption=anothervalue
phptype(dbsyntax)
phptype

The currently supported database backends are:

dbase -> dBase
fbsql -> FrontBase (functional since DB 1.7.0)
ibase -> InterBase (functional since DB 1.7.0)
ifx -> Informix
msql -> Mini SQL (functional since DB 1.7.0)
mssql -> Microsoft SQL Server (NOT for Sybase. Compile PHP --with-mssql)
mysql -> MySQL (for MySQL <= 4.0)
mysqli -> MySQL (for MySQL >= 4.1) (requires PHP 5) (since DB 1.6.3)
oci8 -> Oracle 7/8/9
odbc -> ODBC (Open Database Connectivity)
pgsql -> PostgreSQL
sqlite -> SQLite
sybase -> Sybase

With an up-to-date version of DB, you can use a second DSN format

phptype(syntax)://user:pass@protocol(proto_opts)/database

If your database, option values, username or password contain characters used to delineate DSN parts, you can escape them via URI hex encodings:

= %3a / = %2f @ = %40

= %2b ( = %28 ) = %29
? = %3f = = %3d & = %26

Please note, that some features may be not supported by all database backends. Please refer to the PEAR DB extensions status document located at: /pear/base/dir/DB/doc/STATUS to get a detailed list about what features are supported by which backend.

Example

Connect to database through a socket

mysql://user@unix(/path/to/socket)/pear

Connect to database on a non standard port

pgsql://user:pass@tcp(localhost:5555)/pear

Connect to SQLite on a Unix machine using options

sqlite:////full/unix/path/to/file.db?mode=0666

Connect to SQLite on a Windows machine using options

sqlite:///c:/full/windows/path/to/file.db?mode=0666

Connect to MySQLi using SSL

mysqli://user:pass@localhost/pear?key=client-key.pem&cert=client-cert.pem

Connecting to MS Access sometimes requires admin as the user name

odbc(access)://admin@/datasourcename

Connecting to ODBC with a specific cursor

odbc(access)://admin@/datasourcename?cursor=SQL_CUR_USE_ODBC

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